E-ISSN 2577-5669
 

Original Research 


Survey of animals and their products used in traditional medicine in Jos and Bukuru metropolis, Plateau State, Nigeria

Zainab Muhammad, Ishaku Leo Elisha, Oyebade Kehinde Funmi, Makoshi Micah Shehu, Shok Blessing Zataat, Joy Gararawa Usman, Hong Joseph, Akogwu Emmanuel Itodo, Akpojosevbe Edirin James, Tondo Bernard Kpensalen, Gotep Jurbe Gofwan, Bitrus Yakubu, Maryam Muhammad.

Abstract
Potent elixirs used for recreational and medical purposes are often prepared using by-products and parts of both wild and domesticated animals. In traditional medicine, they are used to manage both physical and spiritual illnesses. This study surveyed the various animals and animal products used in zootherapeutics in Bukuru and Jos metropolis, in Plateau State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were distributed to traditional healers, herb vendors and people willing to participate in the research. We carried out the survey between the months of January and March, 2022. The leaders of traditional healers’ associations, butchers and abattoir workers were subjected to extensive oral interviews. The highest percentage (43.7%) of the respondents were within ages of 31- 45 years, while 60.6% were males. A total of 38 different animals were used for different zootherapeutic purposes against a plethora of diseases, which include sickle cell anaemia, diabetes, asthma, erectile dysfunction, infertility, cancer, stroke, jaundice, leprosy, toothache, epileptic seizures, bone fractures, rabies, rheumatism and other conditions. Prominent animal parts or by-products used in the survey include head, skin, gall bladder, urine, faeces, fats and oil. There is a generous wealth of knowledge in the application of animals and their products in zootherapy. The traditional claims of the treatment of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, sickle cell anaemia, cardiovascular disorders, bacterial and viral infections require empirical validation via biological and pharmacological examinations.

Key words: Animal products, survey, traditional medicines, zootherapeutics, zootherapy


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Muhammad Z, Elisha IL, Funmi OK, Shehu MM, Zataat SB, Usman JG, Joseph H, Itodo AE, James AE, Kpensalen TB, Gofwan GJ, Yakubu B, Muhammad M. Survey of animals and their products used in traditional medicine in Jos and Bukuru metropolis, Plateau State, Nigeria. J Complement Med Res. 2022; 13(4): 40-45. doi:10.5455/jcmr.2022.13.04.09


Web Style

Muhammad Z, Elisha IL, Funmi OK, Shehu MM, Zataat SB, Usman JG, Joseph H, Itodo AE, James AE, Kpensalen TB, Gofwan GJ, Yakubu B, Muhammad M. Survey of animals and their products used in traditional medicine in Jos and Bukuru metropolis, Plateau State, Nigeria. https://www.jocmr.com/?mno=24263 [Access: November 03, 2022]. doi:10.5455/jcmr.2022.13.04.09


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Muhammad Z, Elisha IL, Funmi OK, Shehu MM, Zataat SB, Usman JG, Joseph H, Itodo AE, James AE, Kpensalen TB, Gofwan GJ, Yakubu B, Muhammad M. Survey of animals and their products used in traditional medicine in Jos and Bukuru metropolis, Plateau State, Nigeria. J Complement Med Res. 2022; 13(4): 40-45. doi:10.5455/jcmr.2022.13.04.09



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Muhammad Z, Elisha IL, Funmi OK, Shehu MM, Zataat SB, Usman JG, Joseph H, Itodo AE, James AE, Kpensalen TB, Gofwan GJ, Yakubu B, Muhammad M. Survey of animals and their products used in traditional medicine in Jos and Bukuru metropolis, Plateau State, Nigeria. J Complement Med Res. (2022), [cited November 03, 2022]; 13(4): 40-45. doi:10.5455/jcmr.2022.13.04.09



Harvard Style

Muhammad, Z., Elisha, . I. L., Funmi, . O. K., Shehu, . M. M., Zataat, . S. B., Usman, . J. G., Joseph, . H., Itodo, . A. E., James, . A. E., Kpensalen, . T. B., Gofwan, . G. J., Yakubu, . B. & Muhammad, . M. (2022) Survey of animals and their products used in traditional medicine in Jos and Bukuru metropolis, Plateau State, Nigeria. J Complement Med Res, 13 (4), 40-45. doi:10.5455/jcmr.2022.13.04.09



Turabian Style

Muhammad, Zainab, Ishaku Leo Elisha, Oyebade Kehinde Funmi, Makoshi Micah Shehu, Shok Blessing Zataat, Joy Gararawa Usman, Hong Joseph, Akogwu Emmanuel Itodo, Akpojosevbe Edirin James, Tondo Bernard Kpensalen, Gotep Jurbe Gofwan, Bitrus Yakubu, and Maryam Muhammad. 2022. Survey of animals and their products used in traditional medicine in Jos and Bukuru metropolis, Plateau State, Nigeria. Journal of Complementary Medicine Research, 13 (4), 40-45. doi:10.5455/jcmr.2022.13.04.09



Chicago Style

Muhammad, Zainab, Ishaku Leo Elisha, Oyebade Kehinde Funmi, Makoshi Micah Shehu, Shok Blessing Zataat, Joy Gararawa Usman, Hong Joseph, Akogwu Emmanuel Itodo, Akpojosevbe Edirin James, Tondo Bernard Kpensalen, Gotep Jurbe Gofwan, Bitrus Yakubu, and Maryam Muhammad. "Survey of animals and their products used in traditional medicine in Jos and Bukuru metropolis, Plateau State, Nigeria." Journal of Complementary Medicine Research 13 (2022), 40-45. doi:10.5455/jcmr.2022.13.04.09



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Muhammad, Zainab, Ishaku Leo Elisha, Oyebade Kehinde Funmi, Makoshi Micah Shehu, Shok Blessing Zataat, Joy Gararawa Usman, Hong Joseph, Akogwu Emmanuel Itodo, Akpojosevbe Edirin James, Tondo Bernard Kpensalen, Gotep Jurbe Gofwan, Bitrus Yakubu, and Maryam Muhammad. "Survey of animals and their products used in traditional medicine in Jos and Bukuru metropolis, Plateau State, Nigeria." Journal of Complementary Medicine Research 13.4 (2022), 40-45. Print. doi:10.5455/jcmr.2022.13.04.09



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Muhammad, Z., Elisha, . I. L., Funmi, . O. K., Shehu, . M. M., Zataat, . S. B., Usman, . J. G., Joseph, . H., Itodo, . A. E., James, . A. E., Kpensalen, . T. B., Gofwan, . G. J., Yakubu, . B. & Muhammad, . M. (2022) Survey of animals and their products used in traditional medicine in Jos and Bukuru metropolis, Plateau State, Nigeria. Journal of Complementary Medicine Research, 13 (4), 40-45. doi:10.5455/jcmr.2022.13.04.09